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In the words of Christopher J. Walker, had the Armenians lost this battle, "it is perfectly possible that the word Armenia would have henceforth denoted only an antique geographical term." In January 1918, two months after the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, the Sovnarkom, the highest government authority under the Bolshevik system, issued a decree which called for the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Caucasus Front. This move threw the Armenian leadership in the Transcaucasia into a panic, since it removed from the region the only force capable of protecting the Armenian people from the Ottoman Empire, which had effectively exterminated its Armenian population through systematic massacres and deportations. The Armenians refused to recognize the authority of the Bolsheviks and attempted to form military units to defend the front as the Ottoman armies prepared to expand eastward.
The Armenians attempted to stall the Ottoman advance as they created a small Armenian army to take up the positions the Russians had abandoned. General Tovmas Nazarbekian was selected as its commanding officer and Drastamat Kanayan was appointed as civilian commissar. But in May 1918, just two months after the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty was concluded with the Russian SFSR, elements of the Ottoman Third Army crossed into Eastern Armenia and attacked Alexandropol (modern-day Gyumri). The Ottoman Army intended to crush Armenia and seize Russian Transcaucasia and the oil wells of Baku. The German government, the Ottoman Empire's ally, objected to this attack and refused to help the Ottoman Army in the operation.
At this time, only a small area of historical Armenian territory which used to be a part of the Russian Empire remained unconquered by the Ottoman Empire, and into that area hundreds of thousands of Armenian refugees had fled after the Armenian Genocide. The Ottoman Forces began a three-pronged attack in an attempt to finally overwhelm and conquer the rest of Armenia. When Alexandropol fell, the Ottoman Army moved into the former territory of the Yerevan guberniia – the heart of Armenia. The Ottoman offensive was viewed by Armenians with foreboding. With nowhere else left to retreat, they decided to make their stand and prepare for the upcoming battle: Catholicos Gevorg V ordered that church bells peal for six days as Armenians from all walks of life – peasants, poets, blacksmiths, and even the clergymen – rallied to form organized military units.

投稿日時 - 2018-04-17 15:37:17

QNo.9489538

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>In the words of Christopher J. Walker, had the Armenians lost this battle, "it is perfectly possible that the word Armenia would have henceforth denoted only an antique geographical term." In January 1918, two months after the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, the Sovnarkom, the highest government authority under the Bolshevik system, issued a decree which called for the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Caucasus Front.
⇒クリストファー・J.ウォーカーの言葉によれば、アルメニア人はこの戦いで(祖国を)失ってしまった。曰く、「アルメニアという言葉は、今後、古い地理学用語を示すだけである、としか言いようがないだろう」。ボルシェビキがロシアで権力を握った2か月後の1918年1月、ボルシェビキ体制下の最高権威であるソヴナルコムは、コーカサス戦線からのロシア軍の撤退を求める命令を発した。

>This move threw the Armenian leadership in the Transcaucasia into a panic, since it removed from the region the only force capable of protecting the Armenian people from the Ottoman Empire, which had effectively exterminated its Armenian population through systematic massacres and deportations. The Armenians refused to recognize the authority of the Bolsheviks and attempted to form military units to defend the front as the Ottoman armies prepared to expand eastward.
⇒この動きによってトランスコーカサスにおけるアルメニア軍の指導層は周章狼狽に陥った。なぜなら、組織的な虐殺と追放を通じてアルメニアの人口を効果的に根絶したオスマン帝国からアルメニアの人々を保護する可能性のある唯一の軍団が領域から取り除かれたからである。アルメニア人はボルシェビキの権威を認めず、オスマン帝国軍が東方拡張する準備を整えたので、前線を守るために軍部の部隊を編成することにした。

>The Armenians attempted to stall the Ottoman advance as they created a small Armenian army to take up the positions the Russians had abandoned. General Tovmas Nazarbekian was selected as its commanding officer and Drastamat Kanayan was appointed as civilian commissar. But in May 1918, just two months after the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty was concluded with the Russian SFSR, elements of the Ottoman Third Army crossed into Eastern Armenia and attacked Alexandropol (modern-day Gyumri). The Ottoman Army intended to crush Armenia and seize Russian Transcaucasia and the oil wells of Baku. The German government, the Ottoman Empire's ally, objected to this attack and refused to help the Ottoman Army in the operation.
⇒アルメニア人はロシア人が放棄した陣地を取るために小さなアルメニア軍を組織して、オスマン軍の進軍を足止めさせようと試みた。トマス・ナザルベキアン将軍が指揮官に選ばれ、ドラスタマット・カナヤンが市民政治委員役に任命された。しかし、1918年5月、「ブレスト・リトフスク平和条約」がロシアのSFSR(ソ連社会主義共和国)との間で締結されたわずか2か月後、オスマン第3方面軍の要員が東アルメニアに渡り、アレクサンドロポル(現ギュムリ)を攻撃した。オスマン帝国軍はアルメニアを鎮圧し、ロシアのトランスコーカサスとバクーの油田を奪取しようと意図した。(しかし)オスマン帝国の同盟国であるドイツ政府はこの攻撃に反対し、この作戦行動ではオスマン帝国軍への援助を拒否した。

>At this time, only a small area of historical Armenian territory which used to be a part of the Russian Empire remained unconquered by the Ottoman Empire, and into that area hundreds of thousands of Armenian refugees had fled after the Armenian Genocide. The Ottoman Forces began a three-pronged attack in an attempt to finally overwhelm and conquer the rest of Armenia. When Alexandropol fell, the Ottoman Army moved into the former territory of the Yerevan guberniia – the heart of Armenia. The Ottoman offensive was viewed by Armenians with foreboding. With nowhere else left to retreat, they decided to make their stand and prepare for the upcoming battle: Catholicos Gevorg V ordered that church bells peal for six days as Armenians from all walks of life – peasants, poets, blacksmiths, and even the clergymen – rallied to form organized military units.
⇒この時点では、ロシア帝国の一部であった歴史的なアルメニア領土の小さな領域だけはオスマン帝国軍に征服されず、アルメニア人虐殺の後、その地域に数十万人のアルメニア難民が逃げ込んだ。オスマン帝国軍は、アルメニアの残りの地域を蹂躙し征服しよう企て、三つ又に分かれた編成隊による攻撃を開始した。アレクサンドロポルが陥落したとき、オスマン帝国軍はアルメニアの中心であるイェレヴァン・グベリニャの旧領土に移動した。彼ら(アルメニア人)は退却するところがどこにもなかったので、対抗を決意し、迫り来る戦いの準備をすることを決意した。すなわち、カトリック教長ゲオルグV世が、6日の間教会の鐘を鳴り響かせるように命じて、アルメニア軍としてすべての職業人-小作農、詩人、かじ屋、さらには聖職者まで-を軍隊組織の編成のために召集した。

投稿日時 - 2018-04-28 10:05:35

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2018-04-28 19:05:41

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